Myoma of the uterus is one of the most common gynecological diseases. According to various estimates, every fifth or fourth woman has this problem. Myoma of the uterus occurs at a fairly young age (17-26 years), although earlier the age of the disease was limited to below 30 years and even more.
By its nature, uterine fibroids, also called fibroma, leiomyoma or fibromyoma, are benign tumors of the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium). In the overwhelming majority of cases, the myomatous nodes are located in the body of the uterus (approximately 95% of cases), in others – in the cervix. The overwhelming majority of specialists attribute myoma to benign tumors, but there are those who believe that the myoma is a colony of trichomonads, thereby claiming that there is an oncology with uterine myomas. Meanwhile, some experts believe that there is no sign of any tumor in myoma. Therefore, to date, it is generally accepted that uterine fibroids and oncology are unrelated diseases.
However, observations show that in some cases the myoma can regenerate. In general, oncology with uterine myoma occurs rarely. According to modern estimates, only about 3% of cases are possible oncology with uterine myoma as a result of the degeneration of myoma and approximately 2% of cases of uterine myomas are combined with endometrial cancer. In any case, the timely treatment can solve this problem.
Causes of myoma development There is currently no consensus on the causes of uterine fibroids. Most of the assumptions relate this disease to the presence of such factors:
Deviations in the work of the hypothalamic-pituitary brain region, which regulates the activity of the nervous and endocrine systems of the body, and, as a consequence, increased by the content of estrogens.
The presence of gynecological diseases.
Living in large cities – a sedentary lifestyle, problems with the environment.
Frequent consumption of meat dishes.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Frequent stress, nervous disorders.
Postponement of labor for a period of thirty years.
Since uterine myoma is a benign tumor, in most cases its presence is not accompanied by any symptoms. In general, the presence or absence of symptoms strongly depends on the number of nodes, their size and location. In a number of cases, the following symptoms can occur:
Disorders of menstruation. Include a long, plentiful discharge of blood (even bleeding), or on the contrary – “modest” monthly. In addition, bleeding may occur outside the menstruation period, which can lead to anemia (reduced hemoglobin level in the blood).
Pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen.
Pain at intimacy.
In some cases, myoma can exert pressure on the nerves passing to the lower limbs, which causes pain in the buttocks and lumbar region.
Increased urination, including the desire to go to the toilet at night.
Difficulties with conception, as well as miscarriage of the fetus.
Diagnosis of fibroids
Due to the rare presence of symptoms, usually myoma is first detected at a gynecologist’s appointment. At the same time, the following methods are used to confirm or refute the diagnosis given during the initial examination:
Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the pelvic organs allows you to accurately determine the number, size and location of nodes, assess the overall condition of the tissues of the tissue. To clarify the information received, it is possible to conduct a transvaginal ultrasound.
Computer and magnetic resonance imaging, in addition to the above, can more fully explore the myomatous nodes, assess the condition of neighboring organs (eg, ovaries) and use differential diagnostics to determine the source of the disease. In particular, when a tumor is detected, it allows us to determine what it is – myomatble, oncology. Hysteroscopic method of research along with diagnosis of the disease allows for surgical intervention in outpatient settings.
Methods of treatment of uterine myomas.
Among specialists, it is believed that patients with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids should be examined at least once a year to determine the causes of myoma development, which in turn will help determine the method of its treatment.
For a long time, the only way to combat such diseases as uterine myoma, oncology, was surgery, when a benign tumor was removed along with the uterus (hysterectomy). Fortunately, today there are effective both surgical and non-surgical methods for solving this problem, thanks to which hysterectomy is used less and less. Surgical interventions associated with the removal of uterine fibroids constitute about 80% of all gynecological operations. To modern surgical treatment of fibroids include the following:
Laparoscopy is a method in which surgical operations on internal organs are performed through small holes up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Used to remove abdominal fibroids. Hysteroscopy. As mentioned above, also used foresurgery. Allows to delete submucous sites of myoma. One of the most modern methods of treating uterine fibroids is embolization of the uterine arteries, in which the flow of blood to the myoma is blocked, and as a result, it dies. This non-surgical method is increasingly being used at present.