Malignant transformation of the endometrium, covering the body of the uterus, is the most common oncological disease of female reproductive organs. Nevertheless, it is the last in terms of lethal outcomes, as it is diagnosed at the initial stage. In this case, the disease can be completely cured and returned to normal life. Oncology of the uterus and ovaries, as a rule, occurs in women aged 50 years. Significantly, the disease occurs in women under 50 and after 65 years.
Doctors identify a number of effects that can trigger the onset of growth of cancer cells in the uterus. But the exact and proven signs are still not identified in medicine. The likelihood of ovarian and uterine cancer is higher in those women who have never given birth to children, are obese or have diabetes.
A definite effect on the appearance and growth of a malignant tumor in the uterus is exerted by hormonal drugs, which are aimed at restoring the hormonal balance. However, taking birth control pills significantly reduces the likelihood of developing cervical cancer. In addition, the protective barrier against oral contraceptives remains for several years. It is worth noting that the use of drugs, which include a synthetic hormone estrogen, many times increases the risk of cancer.
Symptoms of oncology of the cervix.
In comparison with other cancers, cervical and ovarian oncology manifests itself in the early stages of development, which makes it possible to start treatment of cervical cancer in time. Thanks to this, the woman has the opportunity to recover from the disease completely.
The most common symptoms in uterine oncology are bleeding from the genitals, which is similar to menstruation, but it happens suddenly. Any uterine bleeding is a pathological phenomenon, especially in women over the age of 45. When these symptoms occur, you should immediately contact your gynecologist. If the last stage of oncology of the cervix is found, the symptoms can manifest as pain in the lower abdomen.
If symptoms are found in the oncology of the uterus, you must contact the gynecologist for a thorough examination and confirmation or denial of the diagnosis. Some signs of oncology of the uterus may indicate benign formations in the reproductive organs of a woman.
First of all, the doctor should listen to complaints, perform an examination and palpation of reproductive organs, as well as direct the patient to the delivery of scraping from the neck. With the help of a gynecologic scraping or smear, an oncology such as cervical cancer is determined. However, it may contain particles from the uterus, which can be examined for oncological formations. If the examination of the smear confirms the presence of cancer cells or indicates at least a suspicion of their presence, the doctor conducts the cleaning of the inner layer of the uterus. This procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia. In the process of curettage, the gynecologist-surgeon removes samples of the mucous membrane, which are then sent to a thorough study. After receiving the results of the study, a final diagnosis is made.
To confirm oncology (cancer) of the cervix, a CT procedure can be performed. With her help, the doctor will be able to determine the exact location of the tumor and detect the growth of nearby lymph nodes, which indicates that they are part of the oncological process.
Treatment of oncology of the uterus.
As a rule, oncology of the uterus and ovaries or oncology of the cervix is detected in the early stages of development, which greatly increases the chances of an absolute cure by only surgical intervention. In most cases, the treatment of uterine oncology, as well as cervical cancer treatment, includes in its complex the provision of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy. However, treatment of oncology of the uterus with the use of hormonal therapy is carried out only in severe stages.
Treatment of oncology of the uterus by surgical intervention provides for the complete excision of the uterus and removal of it from the abdominal cavity. Removal of ovaries in uterine oncology can be performed if the cancer tumor has affected them. Together with the ovaries, the fallopian tubes are removed.
The removal of the uterus is usually a morally and physically difficult operation for a woman. Removal of ovaries in uterine oncology leads to an early climax if the woman has not reached the age of onset of the natural process of attenuation of the childbearing function. As a result, a woman can experience hot flashes and chills, a sharp change of mood, tearfulness, apathy.
Ovaries in the body of a woman are glands of internal secretion. They are very important, because they are part of the childbearing system. Ovaries produce female sex hormones that control the menstrual cycle and the resulting pregnancy. In each ovary contains a huge number of follicles, serving as a place for finding the egg. In the middle of the cycle, the follicle opens and the egg leaves the ovary and passes through the fallopian tubes into the uterus.
Oncological ovarian failure is the most common malignant disease. Like the symptoms of oncology of the uterus, and signs of ovarian cancer appear in the first stages of development. This allows you to start treatment on time and deal with it completely. In order for asymptomatic oncology of the cervix and ovaries to be detected in a timely manner, it is important to regularly check with a gynecologist.
Symptoms of ovarian oncology.
Oncological disease of the ovaries can proceed without any symptoms. However, the symptomatology of this disease still exists. They should pay special attention. The main symptoms include:
Violation of the cycle of menstruation;
The appearance of constipation;
Frequent desire to go to the toilet for urination. This is due to the fact that the tumor compresses the bladder;
Sensation of pressure in the lower abdomen;
Painful aching sensations in the ovaries;
Feeling of nausea, fatigue, unwillingness to eat;
Painful sensations during intercourse;
Increase and bulge of the abdomen.
Oncology of the ovaries is usually a secondary process that began to develop from a benign neoplasm. Primary ovarian cancer is rare.
Types of ovarian cancer.
Like oncology of the cervix or uterus, ovarian cancer has a number of varieties. The main among all oncological lesions is epithelial tumors, which can be detected by histological analysis. Such neoplasms are divided into the following types:
Tumor of Brener;
Clear cell education;
Mixed epithelial tumors;
Complex epithelial cancer;
It should be noted that between benign and malignant education there are tumors that are in the so-called border stage. Such tumors are benign, but have a beginning of degeneration into malignant ones. The plus of this cancer is that it does not appear abruptly, but regenerates gradually, leaving time to struggle with it.
In addition to epithelial ovarian cancer, there are the following types of malignant lesions:
Swelling of the stroma of the genital tract;
Rare cancer lesions of soft tissues in the ovaries;
Secondary malignant formation, which arose by metastasizing from another affected organ;
The occurrence of cysts in the ovaries and endometriosis.
The onset of ovarian cancer and the stage of development.
The onset of cancer is the appearance of a single cancer cell in the ovary. The cancer cell begins to grow actively and form a tumor. Why does a cancer cell start to grow and form a tumor? More recently, doctors have suggested that the division of a cancer cell is caused by a genetic predisposition. However, this is one of the reasons for the occurrence of ovarian cancer and other organs.
The reason may be poor ecology in the locality where the person lives. Harmful substances released into the air and entering the human body can give rise to the appearance of cancer cells and the growth of tumor formations. Oncology of the cervix and oncology of the ovaries can be caused by hormonal failures in the female body. It is these disorders that can affect the reduction of the immune system and provoke tumor growth.
Quite a common opinion that oncology (cancer) of the cervix is a disease of women aged, when the childbearing function begins to fade. However, in recent years, genital cancers have appeared in young girls and women at the age of about 30 years.
Usually, the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs is also that it is almost impossible to detect cancer cells at a very early period. Cancer becomes diagnosed when the number of cancer cells becomes significant. Ovarian cancer, as a rule, is diagnosed in the III-IV stage of development. This is due to the fact that this disease has no obvious symptoms in the early stages of development, making itself felt already in severe form.
Oncological defeat of the ovaries develops in four stages:
The onset of malignant tumor growth is localized in one of the ovaries. As a rule, the process of appearance and development of oncology does not stay in one ovary and quickly passes into the second. There are no signs of the disease at this stage of development. Nevertheless, ascites can be detected;
The second stage of the development of the disease is characterized by complete damage to one of the ovaries. Oncological lesion begins to pass to the fallopian tubes, the body of the uterus and the abdominal cavity. Symptomatic may be absent. However, ascitic manifestation is possible, but not in every case this symptom is present;
At the third stage, there is infection of the lymph nodes. The process begins first in the retroperitoneal nodes, and continues into the inguinal nodes. In some cases, cancer can affect distant lymph nodes. As a rule, this stage of the disease can be detected by a simple examination with a gynecologist;
This stage of the disease is characterized by the appearance of metastases in various organs of the human body. In this case, both near and distant organs are affected. As a rule, lungs and liver are the first metastasized. This stage of the disease is dynamically developing and allows metastasis to almost all organs.
When diagnosing cancer damage to the ovaries at the initial stage of the course, 80% of women are cured completely and return to their usual life. If the disease is detected in the 4th stage of the flow, then only 10% of cases are amenable to treatment or inhibition of the processes. Other cases, unfortunately, result in a fatal outcome.
The causes of cancer cells in the ovaries.
Modern medicine has not established the exact causes of oncology in the ovaries, however, like oncology of the cervix and other organs. However, the risk of getting sick increases in women who have never given birth, as well as those who suffer from hormonal imbalance. In addition, cancer occurs in women, whose genus through the female line has been the cause of oncology.
In medicine, several possible causes of the appearance of ovarian cancer have been identified:
Irregular sexual intercourse;
Presence of chronic diseases of genital organs having an inflammatory course;
Presence of venereal diseases;
Frequent eating of fatty and fried foods, which include carcinogens, food additives and colorants;
The onset of menopause at an early or late age;
High functionality of the pituitary-hypothalamic system;
Bad ecology in the region where the woman lives.
In the life of every woman there is at least one of the above factors. Nevertheless, oncology does not appear in every woman. That is why one should not be very critical of the above reasons.
To avoid the disease or at least to find it on time, every woman should visit the gynecologist regularly and take all the necessary tests. This is especially true for women over the age of 30.
Treatment of oncology of the uterus and ovaries.
Like oncology of the cervix, and ovarian cancer is easily treated at an early stage of the course. Depending on the stage of the disease, special methods for its treatment have been developed.
At the initial stage of the oncology course, when there is practically no symptomatology, the disease is localized directly in one of the two ovaries, it is possible to remove the ovaries by surgery without damaging other organs. A later stage of the disease requires cavitary surgery, when it is necessary to cut off the uterus, ovaries, tubes and all tissues affected by the malignant process.
Chemotherapy is used in the treatment of ovarian cancer. This method has a lot of side effects, but it has the most powerful therapeutic effect in the treatment of cancers. Chemotherapy has an effect on individual metastases, it stops oncological processes in the body.
Preparations for chemotherapy contribute to the destruction of pathological formations, the reduction of tumors. Neoplasms in the ovaries usually have different structures, so several methods of treatment must be applied simultaneously. Nevertheless, the treatment takes place according to the scheme developed by the attending physician.
Radiation therapy is less effective in controlling cervical cancer and is rarely used today. The radiation therapy itself is aimed at irradiating the lower abdomen, while the healthy organs and tissues also suffer. After radiation therapy, patients often have repeated manifestations of ovarian cancer. The treatment methodology is developed based on the specific case, the stage of the disease course and depending on the indications of the diagnostics and tests that the patient is giving.
Oncology of the ovaries is the most common cancer in women. However, such a diagnosis does not mean that the outcome will be lethal. With timely treatment and surgical intervention, most women return to their usual life and live for more than 5-10 years.