To date, a disease such as ovarian cancer is common, the symptoms in women only appear in the late stages and are difficult to detect.
This kind of oncology is a real scourge in the modern world. In terms of the number of female diseases, the tumor in the ovaries ranks fifth, and is most often diagnosed in young women under the age of 40. However, modern methods have been developed that allow for timely and effective treatment, The tumor develops quite quickly.
General information and classification of the disease.
Ovaries are organs of internal secretion, which take part in the work of the reproductive system of a woman. The main function of the body is the production of sex hormones, which regulate pregnancy and the menstrual cycle. Follicles ripen in them, in one of which an egg is located every month. During the period of ovulation, it passes into the uterine tube, and eventually into the uterus.
The most dangerous is the primary form, which already in the initial stage has metastases, and it is impossible to foresee the development of cancer.
According to the type of development, there is a primary, secondary and borderline period of the development of the disease.
In the first case, signs of ovarian cancer imply the presence of a developing tumor, which is initially malignant.
Secondary type of cancer – the development of the disease occurs against the background of an already existing disease that has benign lesions (fibromas, cysts, tumors, cancer of Crookenberg), and the transition of their character into malignant ones.
Border type cancer is a neoplasm with a low degree of malignancy, which for a long time is located in the ovaries and does not go beyond them.
Prerequisites for the development of the disease.
Modern science has not yet been able to identify the exact causes that cause ovarian cancer in women of different ages. Based on the data of many years of research, it can be said that this kind of oncopathology often occurs in young, nulliparous women, in patients with hormonal disorders and hereditary predisposition.
Let’s name the factors that most often provoke the symptoms and signs of ovarian cancer:
Irregular sexual life;
Improper organization of food: the predominance in the daily menu of fatty, fried foods, with a large number of artificial colors, carcinogens, supplements;
The onset of late or early menopause;
Presence of other tumor processes in the body;
Abnormal increase in the number of ovulations;
Damage or defects in the epithelium of the ovary.
The listed factors can be present in the life of each of the women, however, the oncological disease does not develop in all. Doctors believe that there is a connection between cancer cells and the presence of disorders in the hormonal background, which become prerequisites for the formation of a malignant neoplasm.
Stages of cancer development.
Before describing the symptoms of ovarian cancer, we will select its stages:
The tumor is located only in the affected area and does not metastasize to another ovary;
Cancer cells continue to develop, the second ovary is affected;
There are metastases that affect the lymph nodes and nearby tissues, the disease spreads to closely located organs;
With the help of blood and lymph, metastases spread throughout the body.
The onset of the disease does not have any symptoms, and a woman may not even suspect its presence. But as the tumor grows, the signs become more pronounced.
Signs of the disease.
Most women who have a cancer in the ovaries, initially do not feel anything, if there are any signs, they simply do not pay proper attention.
But there are specific symptoms and signs of ovarian cancer, which must be taken into account:
Occurrence of malfunctions in the menstrual cycle;
Frequent urination and “false” urges to it – the tumor grows and compression of the bladder occurs;
The presence of secretions with a small blood content;
Constant pain in the abdomen;
Feeling of heaviness and pressure in the lower abdomen, as well as in the lumbar region;
Permanent constipation and indigestion, flatulence;
Painful sensations during intercourse;
Feelings of depression, weakness, decreased appetite;
Increase and bloating – is provoked by the formation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
Be sure to take into account the presence of family heredity on the line of oncology in the mammary glands, uterus or in the ovaries.
Diagnosis of the disease.
Neoplasm is quite difficult to detect, which is due to the location of a cancerous tumor that is located in the middle of the ovary and is completely invisible in the early stages.
At carrying out of detailed diagnosing in the department of oncourology, the clinic of the disease becomes obvious:
Ultrasound of the pelvic organs. It allows to detect the focus of the disease, its size, the presence and spread of metastases.
Lymphography. With its help, the lymph nodes of the internal organs adjacent to the tumor are examined.
Puncture biopsy. It makes it possible to conduct a study under the microscope of a cancerous structure.
MRI or computed tomography. They allow to determine with maximum accuracy the boundaries, location, boundaries and size of the tumor.
Laparoscopy. The possibility of affecting the cancer of nearby organs is being studied. X-ray examination. Shows all the foci of development and placement of metastases.
In addition to carrying out the described instrumental methods of testing, laboratory tests are very effective to confirm or refute the diagnosis, to select the most suitable treatment for ovarian cancer in a specific clinic for the development of the disease.
The doctor assigns the patient to the change:
Biochemical blood analysis – allows you to diagnose the patient’s hormonal background and its changes;
A specific blood test – studies the number of oncomarkers and their characteristics.
Only after carrying out the listed actions, the doctor can put the final diagnosis and determine the productive treatment.